1. nurses on the battlefield and behind the lines.
2. prison camp reformers.
3. surgeons specializing in battlefield amputations.
4. strike leaders in northern industries
1. assuring the equality of all Americans.
2. slowing down business activity in both the North and the South.
3. greatly weakening national loyalty in the North.
4. establishing the sovereignty of the federal government and the dominance of industrial capitalism.
1. targeted for military service every slaveholder with at least twenty slaves.
2. exempted from military service one white man on every plantation with twenty or more slaves.
3. paid slaveholders scarce government funds for every twenty slaves they owned or supervised.
4. meant that every slaveholder with at least forty slaves had to turn over twenty of them for use by the Confederate government
1. as slave owners increasingly realized the advantages of free labor and began paying their slaves for their labor without actually freeing them.
2. by disrupting the routine, organization, and discipline necessary to keep slavery intact.
3. because thousands of weary and disgusted slaveholders freed their slaves.
4. because most male slaves joined the Union army.
1. was a Confederate victory that not only upset Union commanders but also rid the lower Mississippi Valley of the federal army.
2. was an important Union victory that opened up a large portion of the Mississippi River.
3. produced a stalemate after horrendous casualties.
4. was an astounding Confederate victory that gave Union commanders pause concerning whether they could actually win the war.
1. had been a great success for the Union because the same northern generals stayed on for the duration, getting wiser with each battle.
2. had reached a stalemate.
3. made it obvious that the rebellion was nearly over.
4. had seen one Union victory after another
1. forced every state to issue resolutions making their case against the Emancipation Proclamation.
2. continued their staunch support of states’ rights critic Jefferson Davis because of his popularity among Southern people.
3. denied the right of West Virginians to break away from Virginia and create their own state.
4. expanded their power by drafting soldiers into the Confederate army and confiscating large amounts of property for the war effort.
1. put an end to widespread speculation on western land purchases.
2. promised every former slave a homestead with forty acres and a mule.
3. helped to encourage Westerners to be loyal to the Union.
4. instituted America’s first public education system.
1. a special delegation from the deep South toured the upper tier of slave states and convinced the leaders of those states to secede.
2. they couldn’t see themselves fighting fellow Southerners and felt betrayed when Lincoln chose to use military means against the South.
3. the new Confederate government offered those states special tax advantages if they would join the other slave states seeking independence from the government in Washington, D. 4. minor slave revolts began breaking out, clearly threatening the region’s institution of slavery.
1. enlistments for those drafted into the army were twice as long as those for men who volunteered their services. 2. they had to provide much of their own equipment.
3. they fell under a special “hostility” clause and were paid less than so-called patriotic men who volunteered. 4. it allowed a draftee to hire a substitute or pay a $300 fee to avoid conscription.
1. was a crucial turning point for Confederate armies because it proved to be the last time Confederates launched a major offensive above the Mason-Dixon line.
2. stimulated an important council of war among major Union generals, who concluded that the North would be better off suing for peace to save the lives of their soldiers.
3. became an important experiment in which the South got to field test several new secret weapons.
4. proved to be a catastrophe because so much of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was destroyed that it no longer functioned as an effective fighting force.
1. Confederates firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor in April 1861.
2. an assault on Washington, D.C., in February 1861 by a ragtag group of Confederate sympathizers from Maryland.
3. Confederates firing on the frigate Star of the West as it attempted to reprovision Fort Moultrie in Charleston harbor in January 1861.
4. the assault on federal troops passing through Baltimore, Maryland, early in 1861.
1. the nation’s first military campaign in which biological warfare would be used.
2. a scorched-earth military campaign aimed at destroying the will of the southern people.
3. a military campaign in which he planned to have the men under his command take Georgians’ cotton and sell it to England to help finance the northern war effort.
4. a military campaign in which his sole purpose was to recruit black men for the Union army.
1. Lincoln successfully shepherded the nation through an awful war and yet struggled with his own misgivings about America’s form of republicanism.
2. neither man was very committed to the efforts he embarked on.
3. Abraham Lincoln brought little political experience to his presidency yet rose to the occasion to become a masterful leader, whereas Jefferson Davis, a seasoned politician, proved to be a relatively ineffectual chief executive.
4. Jefferson Davis made grandiose public statements about what the Confederate States of America might be able to accomplish but privately believed that the South never had a chance.
1. indiscriminately poisoning white Southerners. 2. overtly attacking their masters when they had the chance.
3. banding together to sabotage the efforts of the Confederate army.
4. employing various means to undermine white mastery and expand control over their own lives.
1. resulted in imprisonment of a vast number of northern Democrats.
2. did suppress free speech.
3. were largely symbolic and involved no real action.
4. were tantamount to a reign of terror.
1. most fought in the Union army.
2. many fled to Canada to avoid being reenslaved by the Confederate forces.
3. the war seemed like an irrelevant war between whites.
4. a very low proportion of the population actually participated in combat during the Civil War.
1. engage in violent revolt.
2. steal even more property than they had stolen before the conflict broke out.
3. run away.
4. refuse to work.
1. the lack of Unionists in the entire South.
2. clergymen, who stated that God had blessed slavery and the new nation.
3. slaves, who believed that once the war was over they would have a place as free people in the Confederacy.
4. yeomen, who understood that they needed to continue to ally themselves with the planters in order to move up in society.
1. drastically undermined the patriotism of most workers.
2. often proved remarkably successful.
3. rarely succeeded.
4. were more effective for women than for men.