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Child abuse is any emotional, sexual, or physical mistreatment, as well as neglect of a child. Some countries may vary in their definition of the term. In the USA. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) defines child abuse as ” child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child”.
A UK guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 2010 (1.33-1.36) says that there are four types of child abuse:
Although the UK guidance does not specifically mention bullying as a form of abuse, the country’s authorities say that there is compelling evidence that it is abuse, and will invariably include at least one of the four abuse categories defined.
Child abuse can happen anywhere, in the child’s home, school, community or other organizations, environments or places. What is physical abuse?
Physical abuse may include, as defined in the UK and most other European Union countries:
When a parent/caregiver fabricates a symptom in a child
When a parent/caregiver induces an illness in a child deliberately ..and any other type of physical harm to a child
Some countries specifically define the following, as forms of physical abuse (some overlap those listed above)
Belting, Biting, Blinding a person or causing impairment of sight, Cutting or otherwise exposing somebody to something sharp, Drowning, Excessive pinching on the body, Exposure to a dangerous animal, Exposure to a toxic substance, Exposure to cold, freezing, Exposure to electric shock, Exposure to heat or radiation, Burning, Head-butting, Infecting with a disease, Kicking, Kneeing, Placing in stress positions (tied or otherwise forced), Poisoning, Punching, Pushing, pulling, Slapping, Sleep deprivation, Stabbing, Strangling, Striking with an object, Striking, Throwing acid in someone’s face, Throwing or shooting a projectile, Tickling non-consensually, Tripping, Whipping, Withholding food or medication. In a growing number of countries, using corporal punishment as a form of imposing or teaching discipline, is seen as a form of physical child abuse.