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HIST 150 Key Terms

Black Panthers
-Mid 1960s
-Oakland, California
-Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
-black nationalist and socialist organization for self-defense
-armed citizens monitored behavior behavior of police and challenged police brutality
-inspired by Malcolm X

Freedom Riders
-challenged non-enforcement of two court cases about arrests from segregated transportation
-civil rights activists road busses into the segregated south
-early 1960s

Nation of Islam
-founded by Wallace Fard in 1930 in Detroit
-labeled as hate group and black supremacists
-Malcolm X left to become a sunni Muslim
-Elijah Muhammad was leader
-aimed at social justice
-goals: improve spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of blacks in the U.S. and all humanity

Civil Rights Act of 1965
-outlawed discrimination based on any identifier
-called for by JFK
-ended racial segregation in schools, work and public facilities

Watts Riots
-race riots in Watts neighborhood (LA, 1965)
-started by black motorist arrested for drunk driving
-sparked roadside riot
-lasted 7 days in August
-blamed on unemployment
-investigations showed police racism

Montgomery Bus Boycott
-started by Rosa Parks in 1955
-ended by Browder v Gayle in 1956 when segregation was declared unconstitutional
-political and social protest campaign against racial segregation of public transit system

Voting Rights Act of 1965
-prohibits racial discrimination in voting
-president Lyndon B. Johnson
-brought on by attack on marched from Selma

1963 March on Washington
-called for civil and economic rights for blacks
-“I have a dream” speech by MLK given next day in DC
– one of largest political rallies in history

Medgar Evers
-black civil rights activist of 1950s
-murdered in 1963 in his driveway in front of family
-murderer not convicted till 30 yrs later
-worked with NAACP to overturn the segregation at the Univ of Mississippi

white savior complex
-tendency for there to be a white hero in movies when it is about minorities
-the idea that western cultures have a duty to fix the problems of struggling nations

Timothy McVeigh
-terrorist behind domestic Oklahoma city bombing in 1995
-happened because of Waco Siege

“Homegrown Terrorism”
-domestic terrorism
-terrorist is citizen of the nation

-global militant Islamist organization
-organized by Osama Bin Laden
-organized 9/11 attacks

Operation Enduring Freedom
-official term for the global war on terrorism
-starting in 2001

Weapons of Mass Destruction
-weapons that can kill or bring harm to a significant amount of people and structures
-Saddam Hussein was condemned for using them

-engaged in jihad

“State Sponsored Terrorism”
-government support for violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism

United Flight 93
-9/11 plane that crashed in Shanksville, PA
-not sure where target was headed

Department of Homeland Security
-proposed in Jan, 2001
-expedited to creation after 9/11
-protect U.S. from terrorist attacks, natural disasters and accidents

“GTMO” (Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp)
-oldest oversea naval base
-used for housing military prisoners and unlawful combatants

John Rabe
-German business man
-leader of the local Nazi organization
-helped establish International Safety Zone in Nanjing
-saved many victims of Nanjing raping
-sheltered up to 200,000 Chinese civilians

International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone
-Established in order to manage the Nanking safety zone
-led by John Rabe
-“A small number of Western businessmen, journalists and missionaries, however, chose to remain behind. The missionaries were primarily Americans from the Episcopal, Disciples of Christ, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches. To coordinate their efforts, the Westerners formed a committee”

Tokyo-Rome-Berlin Axis
-happened in Germany
-Tripartite Pact (military alliance) signed by Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan
-sealed cooperation among the three nations (Axis Powers) in WWII

2nd Sino-Japanese War
-fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan
-Germany gave money to China
-Was still going on during WWII

Iris Chang
-Wrote The Rape of Nanking
-About her true experience of the Nanking Raping
-committed suicide

Historical Revisionism vs. Negationism
-the legitimate scholastic re-examination of existing cultural knowledge of a historical event
-the illegitimate distortion of the historical record, denial of historical crimes (rape of nanking)

“Comfort Women”
-women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the imperial Japanese army in occupied territories before and during WWII
-travel with soldiers who owned them

Enola Gay
-first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb
-was named after pilots mom
-dropped ‘little boy’ on Hiroshima

Tokyo War Trials
-all Japanese class A war criminals were tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo

-atomic bomb ‘little boy’ dropped
-wiped out 90% of city
-killed 80,000 people

-3 days after bombing on Hiroshima
-atomic bomb ‘fat man’ dropped
-killed 40,000 people

“Living Memory”
-when an events seems connected to a survivor’s life span
-when there are no longer any survivors left to testify
-when memories are no longer guaranteed and anchored by a body that lived through the event, the memory is more complicated

Object Survivors
-visual objects from the conflict that have social power
-have a lot of meaning by bearing historical witness
-ex) the shoes at the Holocaust Memorial Museum are powerful to those not there

Nuremberg Trials
-series of military tribunals
-held by the Allied forces after WWII
-most notable for the prosecution of some leadership of Nazi Germany

Holocaust Denial
-belief or assertion that the Holocaust did not happen or is greatly exaggerated

German Democratic Republic (GDR)
-East Germany
-dictatorship founded after WWII
-formed parts of Germany occupied by the USSR

Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)
-West Germany
-US, Great Britain and France’s Zone

Sophie Scholl
-German student and revolutionary
-active in white rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany
-convicted of high treason after distributing anti-war leaflets at University of Munich
-was executed

-authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government
-social organization
-opposite to Marxism and liberalism
-Italy under Mussolini

-process of bringing leaders of the National Socialist regime in Germany to justice
-purging all elements of Nazism from public life

National Socialism
-Nazi party in Germany
-the supremacy of Hitler
-national expansion
-State control of the economy

Ethnic Cleansing
-mass expulsion or killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society

-composed of Croats, Serbs and Bosnians
-declined in 1980s

-carried out ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia
-largest population in Yugoslavia
-provoked war for own country

Slobodan Milosevic
-Serbian leader
-promoted ‘greater Serbia’
-blamed for fostering ethnic conflict
-charged for crimes against humanity

Bosnia (Bosniaks)
-Muslims in Yugoslavia
-most targeted population during ethnic cleansing

-massacre carried out against Bosnians

-considered minority of Rwanda
-genocide against them in 1994
-lasted 100 days

-considered majority and natives of Rwanda
-leaders of the Rwandan genocide

-those guilty of genocide
-those who participated

Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
-Tutsi rebels
-current political party in Rwanda
-led by President Paul Kigame
-captured Kigali and forced Hutus to flee Zaire, ending the Rwandan genocide

-Hutu militia that carried out the genocide
-had backing from Hutu
-led government leading up to and during the genocide

-‘dark tourism’ to historical sites involving death/tragedy

-racial segregation
-policy of political and economic discrimination
-system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced by the National Party

Nelson Mandela
-anti-apartheid revolutionary
-served as president of South Africa (1994-1999)
-first democratically elected president
-face of ANC

African National Congress (ANC)
-formed in the early 20th century
-allowed a voice to the Blacks
-wasn’t ineffective until 1960s
-1940: Mandela joins and becomes the face

-dutch inhabitants of South Africa

-territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and West Africa (now Namibia)
-part of the policy of apartheid
-natives in South Africa were assigned to designated area

-urban living areas for non-whites until the end of Apartheid
-non-whites were forced to live in these areas and were forcefully removed from their previous homes

-massacre 1960
-nonviolent protest
-ANC abandons non violence policy

“Living martyr”
-a person who willingly suffers death rather than renounce his or her religion or beliefs

Open Stellenbosch
-takes place at Stellenbosch University
-are disappointed in the blatant division of the races in the classroom, staff as well as the language barrier issues

Rhodes must fall
-took place at University of Cape Town
-a protest by students to have the statue of Cecil Rhodes taken down because of his part in apartheid

Vietnam Veterans Memorial (“The Wall”)
-In DC
-created by Maya Lin
-black granite wall with Vietnam names

Hanoi Jane
-nickname for Jane Fonda after visiting North Vietnam in 1972
-American actress
-anti-war protests
-Jane Fonda sat on an enemy anti-aircraft gun in Hanoi, Vietnam

Kent State protest
-also known as the Kent State Massacre/shootings
-occurred in Kent, Ohio
-involved in the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard
-Monday, May 4th

Lyndon Johnson
-36th president of the US
-assumed presidency after JFK
-greatly escalated America’s involvement in Vietnam

My Lai
-massacre in South Vietnam
-killing of unarmed citizens by the US army
-men, women and children killed
-women raped

Tet Offensive
-campaign of surprise attacks
-against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam
-launched in 1968
-launched by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese
-against the South Vietnamese and the United States

Peace with honor
-phrase U.S. president Nixon used
-January 23, 1973
-described the Paris Peace Accord to end Vietnam War

-implemented by Nixon
-aimed at pulling US troops from Vietnam
-equipped the South Vietnamese with weapons

boat people
-Vietnamese refugees fleeing after the war
-about 800,000 refugees between 1975-1995

Ernesto “Che” Guevera
-cuban revolutionary leader
-Marxist from Argentina
-tactics were in favor of helping those who could not help themselves
-considered terrorist by US
-considered hero in South America
-assassinated by CIA in 1967

Bay of Pigs
-JFK’s attempt to take over Cuba and be the dominant force
-Cuba knew American soldiers were coming
-invasion was really unsuccessful

U.S. Army School of the Americas
-combat training school for Latin American Soldiers
-located in Georgia
-renamed Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (2001)

Cuban Embargo
-commercial, economic and financial embargo imposed by the U.S. on Cuba
-Began October 19, 1960
-no exports to Cuba except food and medicine

Fidel Castro
-leader of Cuba while JFK was president
-communist dictator

Cuban Missile Crisis
-competition between USSR and the US
-USSR placed missiles in Cuba to be able to hit every major city in the US
-US also had missiles in Turkey pointed at the USSR
-both removed missiles
-closest time to WWIII

Operation Condor
-campaign of political repression and state terror
-involved intelligence operations and assassinations of opponents
-officially implemented in 1975
-by right wing dictatorships of the Southern Cone of South America
-intended to eradicate communist or Soviet influence and ideas

Dirty War
-name used by Argentine Military Government
-period of state terrorism in Argentina
-from 1974-1983
-military and security forces and right-wing death squads in the form of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Triple A) hunted down and killed left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone beloved to be associated with socialism

John F. Kennedy
-president of the US in the early 60s
-active in the Cold War

Salvador Allende
-Chilean physician and politician
-known as the first Marxist to become president of Latin American Country through open elections
-overthrown and died during an army coup supported by the CIA in 1973

General Augusto Pinochet
-dictator in Chile from 1973-1990
-commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army from 1973-1998
-assumed power after a US backed coup to overthrow Salvador Allende

The Disappeared
-during Dirty War
-later revealed that many disappeared under military dictatorships in Latin America

Containment Policy
-prevention of the spread of communism
-trying to prevent Domino Theory
-in response to the Soviet Union’s attempts at spreading communism

“Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart”
-how the Berlin Wall was referred to as by the GDR authorities
-implies that the NATO countries and West Germany in particularly were fascists

Brandenburg Gate
-Arch in Berlin
-marks the state of the of a road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg
-one of Germany’s most iconic monuments

“Ich bin ein Berliner”
-“I am a Berliner”
-Quote from JFK’s speech in West Germany in 1963
-showed West Germans, especially lived in Berlin, that the US was on their side
-arguably Kennedy’s best speech

“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
-speech by Ronald Reagan
-in front of the Brandenburg Gate
-Reagan challenged Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall in order to promote more freedom
-Wall came down 2 years later

Berlin Blockade/Berlin Airlift
-Soviet attempts to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy
-high point in the Cold War
-led to the Berlin Airlift, joined effort by the US and Britain to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after Soviet blockade off all ground routes into the city

-German secret police
-German CIA

“brain drain”
-loss of the best and brightest people to other countries
-ex) Albert Einstein fleeing Germany

Checkpoint Charlie
-given the name by Western Allies
-best known Berlin Wall crossing point between East and West Berlin during the Cold War
-access point for foreigners and military

Helmut Kohl
-chancellor of Germany
-helped reshape Germany after the Cold War
-helped in German reunification

“inner reunification”
-unification of East and West Berlin
-and East and West Berlin
-still in the process, gradual

Josef Stalin
-leader of Soviet Union (1924-1953)
-implemented five year plan
-agricultural collectivisation
-cult of personality

cult of personality
arises when an individual, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise

Mikhail Gorbachev
-last leader of Soviet Union
-economic stagnation
-reform minded

Russian Federation
-name of the successor state to the Soviet Union (Russia)
-largest and most powerful remnant of the old Soviet empire

-in the former Soviet Union
-policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system
-first proposed by Leonid Brezhnev in 1979
-actively promoted by Mikhail Gorbachev
-originally referred to increased automation and labor efficiency
-but came to entail greater awareness of economic markets and the ending of central plan

Vladimir Lenin
-leader of USSR
-communist leader

The August Coup
-attempts to overthrow Gorbachev at the end of the Soviet Union

-ceased to exist 1991
dissolved into more than a dozen countries
-communist country

-soviet police and intelligence agency

-Stalin’s man made famine in the Ukraine
-occurred in 1932-1933
-estimated 2.5-7.5 million deaths

-located in the Black Sea between Ukraine and USSR
-it’s connected to Ukraine but in the control of Russia
-it has a highly sought after port on the Black Sea

Vladimir Putin
-served as the President of Russia from 2000-2008
-current president as of 2012
-also served as Prime Minister
-served on the KGB for 16 years

-soviet policy of open discussion of political and social issues
-instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s
-began the democratization of the Soviet Union

Chiang Kai-shek
-general and leader of National Socialist after 1925
-although succeeding Sun Yat-sen as head of Guomindang
-became a military dictator who wanted to crush the communist movement by Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong
-ruled from 1949-1976
-leader of Communist Part in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists
-established China as the People’s Republic of China
-seen as idol in China
-mummifies body in Tiananmen Square

Great Leap Forward
-Moa tried unsuccessfully to rapidly increase China’s industrial and agricultural production

Five Year Plan
-Stalin’s economic plan to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI
-tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output
-resulted in famine

Cultural Revolution
-political policy started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China
-resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailing and the death of thousands

Little Red Book
-a book of selected statements from speeches and writings of Mao Zedong
-given to citizens at graduations and other ceremonies

Deng Xiaoping
-economic reforms after the Great Famine
-labeled ‘capitalist roader’
-1978 – gained control of the people’s liberation army
-reversed some of Mao’s policies (abolished ag communes, allowed private farm plots/small business, sought international investors
-begins 1 child policy
-opened educational opportunities
-regained Hong Kong (capitalist)
-maintained communist power
-in favor of good economic policy

Tiananmen Square Massacre
-political and social protest by University Students in Beijing, China
-called for political and social reforms
-resulted in the government using military to end it
-causes hundreds of deaths

Tank Man
-man stood in front of a row of tanks
June 5, 1989
-morning after, military stopped protests with force
-was an unknown protestor

Goddess of Democracy
-statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests
-resembles the statue of Liberty
-made in 4 days out of foam
-run over and destroyed during the massacre

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